Better Product Managers, and Product Management

Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning

I wrote earlier about finding people for your customer development interviews.

Once you’ve found people for your interviews, you’re probably thinking, “Great, I can ask them if they’d use my product!”

Wrong.

OK, you’re thinking, “then what should I ask them?”

A better way to think about it is, what should I be learning from this interview?

It’s really important to understand the philosophy behind the customer development interview, particularly because it runs so counter to entrepreneurial instincts.  Be direct. Act. Get stuff done.  You ask questions, you get “70% good” information, you decide.  But when it comes to identifying a problem and potential solutions, the direct approach doesn’t really work.

Why? Because people are too polite to say ‘no’.  Because people can’t imagine technologies that don’t exist yet.  Because people overestimate how much effort they’re willing to put into something.  Because people think incremental, not disruptive.  Plenty of reasons.  Let’s accept this and move on.

So, what should I be learning from the customer development interview?

  • How is your customer currently dealing with this task/problem?  (What solution/process are they using?)
  • What do they like about their current solution/process?
  • Is there some other solution/process you’ve tried in the past that was better or worse?
  • What do they wish they could do that currently isn’t possible or practical?
  • If they could do [answer to the above question], how would that make their lives better?
  • Who is involved with this solution/process?  How long does it take?
  • What is their state of mind when doing this task?  How busy/hurried/stressed/bored/frustrated? [note: learn this by watching their facial expressions and listening to their voice]
  • What are they doing immediately before and after their current solution/process?
  • How much time or money would they be willing to invest in a solution that made their lives easier?

The important thing about these questions is that they set up an environment where the customer is the “expert”.  They avoid yes/no answers, and give people the opportunity to tell a story – one that may trigger them to think of related problems they’re having, or may trigger more questions from you to ask later.

These questions are applicable for both consumer and enterprise products.  (I’ve used this question list on B2B internal tools, B2B2C consumer-facing apps, and B2C widgets.)

Can you give me an example?

These questions make a lot more sense when applied to a concrete example, so I’ll make one up: an online grocery shopping application. Your hypothesis is that busy households need a better way of making sure they don’t run out of things and don’t have to make a zillion trips to the market.  You’ve found customers to talk to – now you need to understand how they feel/behave when it comes to grocery shopping.

“Tell me about how your household handles grocery shopping…”

Whether they describe a detailed or haphazard process, this is your competition.  This is what you have to be substantially better than, in order to get customers to change their behavior.

“How is that process working for you?”

If you’re lucky, a customer may launch immediately into a rant on how they’re always running out of Cheerios or spending too much because they have to buy milk at the overpriced corner store.  If not, you may gently prompt them with triggers like “Do you generally have the ingredients you need to make dinner?” or “How much time do you spend shopping?”

Validation check: they might not care enough to change their current habits, even if they’re not 10o% optimal.

“Have you tried other approaches, like online grocery delivery or keeping a list on your iPhone?”

Customers who have tried other approaches = a good sign that this is enough of a problem that they’re motivated to fix it.

Validation check: Even if your customer thinks they spend too much time grocery shopping, if they’ve never tried any approach to fix this, then they don’t care enough to try your product. (On the other hand, if they have tried other things, you should try to learn why these other approaches didn’t help or were unsustainable.)

“If you could improve anything about your grocery shopping routine, what would it be?”

If customers don’t immediately have an idea, you could gently prompt with “spend less time, less money, have fresher/healthier foods on hand…?”

This question is going to prompt people to jump to solutions (like “I want a cost comparison tool”), rather than articulating their problems, so you need to immediately follow up with:

“If you had a cost comparison tool, how would that make your life easier?”

(basically, the 5-Whys approach)  You want to discover what’s at the root of this suggestion – is it more important that they pay the lowest prices, or do they want to cut down on trips to several different grocery stores, etc.

Validation check: if they really can’t articulate why this solution would make their lives better, it probably won’t.

“What people in your household buy groceries?”

These are the potential stakeholders of your solution.  This can also open up insights – if your customer says “I do all the shopping, but I wish my teenage kids could pitch in too”, that’s an area ripe for product exploration: how can we help division of labor? how can we shift simple tasks from the time-constrained/expensive resource to a “cheaper” one?

“What do you do immediately before you go grocery shopping?”

This is a great way to find ways to differentiate your product – to most people, grocery shopping starts when you walk through those electronic sliding doors.  But to your customer, it might start with asking your wife and kids what they need, making a list, looking up recipes online, or getting the baby changed and buckled into her carseat.

(Your product probably won’t solve for the baby thing, but it gives you insight into your customers’ state of mind – how busy they are, how stressed, do they only have one free hand to use…?)

“What do you do immediately after you go grocery shopping?”

Again, to your customer, grocery shopping isn’t over until the frozen foods are in the freezer and the cans in the cupboard.  This may reveal new product stakeholders: the 8- and 10-year old who never go to the grocery store, but who unload the car and put things away.

“Would you be willing to spend some money to get a cost comparison tool or other tools that would make your grocery shopping easier?”

If the customer says yes, suggest an amount (“say, $10 a month?”)

Validation check: If the customer says ‘no’, or says ‘yes’ in a hesitant way, they’re not going to use your product.

And finally…

After all these questions, feel free to ask about your specific solution and how interesting the customer finds it.  Give them the opportunity to ask questions of you.  You never know where inspiration will strike!

Popularity: 70% [?]

Popularity: 70% [?]
  • adbomaha

    Fantastic stuff. Will certainly be using it.

  • bknotts

    I've been meeting with English teachers and librarians about my product all week and have been conducting my interviews like this, not because I'm smart and knew that was the right way to do it, but because I needed their expert advice more than I needed their patronage. I even forget some times that their potential customers.

    P.S. I recently discovered you and the knowledge you're creating. I shared one of your presentations on my blog http://manindyarena.com/post/394763265/startup-

  • markkromer

    I would also add that the same approach works well for product managers of established products during site visits of existing customers. This approach to probing business (or consumer) processes applies there as well.

  • http://www.cindyalvarez.com cindyalvarez

    Absolutely! There is a tendency (on both the product manager and customer side) to stick with the status quo – if nothing's broken, everyone's happy and self-congratulatory, no one probes.

    I wrote about this experience with a customer last year (http://www.cindyalvarez.com/psychology/no-one-a…) – it was a great example of our tendency to think incrementally, not disruptively.

  • http://www.arandomjog.com/2010/03/favorite-product-management-posts-february-2010/ Favorite Product Management Posts February 2010 | A Random Jog

    [...] Experience is the Product – Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning The important thing about these questions is that they set up an environment where the customer is [...]

  • http://twitter.com/leslieikemoto Leslie Ikemoto

    Recently discovered your blog, and already have found it very useful! My question – how can these interview questions be adapted to something more recreational, like video games? Here the “task” is optional (unlike grocery shopping which pretty much everyone has to deal with), and the “problem” is less well defined…at least in my mind, but maybe you have a different take? Thanks!

  • http://www.cindyalvarez.com/learning/faq-customer-development-for-product-managers » FAQ: Customer Development for Product Managers The Experience is the Product | Better product management and products

    [...] The more detailed answer: What you should be learning from customer development interviews [...]

  • http://twitter.com/productmayor Brandon McNamara

    There is a good book, Outcome Driven Innovation http://bit.ly/9kdOj7 that deals with exactly what the title says, “outcome driven innovation” – its a good ancillary read to the customer development material. I believe the work stems out of Clayton Christenson's work.

    The idea: “customers” have “jobs” they are trying to get done (tasks and activites) and they have outcomes they are trying to achieve (metrics used to define success of a job). Also, they have constraints that may prevent them from adopting or using a new product or service.

    Based on that, you don't test solutions or features, instead you test outcomes, jobs, and constraints. It helps you 'get inside your customers head' to find where they link value to products and puts you in a better position for success when utilizing the customer development methods.

  • http://artvankilmer.wordpress.com/ Arthur Klepchukov

    Cindy, thanks for such a wonderful and insightful post. I've come back to it several times in the last few months and always find it useful. The specific questions and the grocery example are a big help and launch pad for my own discovery questions specific to my business.

    I've also found Ash's first Customer Development checklist a helpful source of these type of questions: http://www.ashmaurya.com/2010/02/customer-devel

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  • http://giffconstable.com/2010/07/12-tips-for-early-customer-development-interviews/ 12 Tips for Early Customer Development Interviews — giffconstable.com

    [...] Addendum If you are interested in this topic, check out Cindy Alvarez’s posts on finding people and conducting interviews. [...]

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    [...] great session. Abe covered some theory but focused on real-world user experience (UX) examples and questions that we marketers can answer to improve our products. I’ll link to the handout and slides as soon as TIMA shares [...]

  • http://madebymany.co.uk/customer-development-a-few-tools-and-resources-or-how-to-become-an-excellent-stalker-004417 Customer Development: a few tools and resources (or how to become an excellent stalker) « Made by Many

    [...] impact on how useful these interviews are. Here is a template I’ve taken from Cindy’s blog: Snapshot from Cindy Alvarez's excellent [...]

  • http://www.cindyalvarez.com/data-driven/hybrid-feedback-is-stronger » Hybrid Feedback is Stronger The Experience is the Product | Better product management and products

    [...] can call and ask questions about their book exchange needs (see earlier post on “what you should be learning?”), or ask a couple people to go through your website while you watch over their shoulder or using [...]

  • http://www.ukhotdeals.com/ UK Hot Deals

    The concept of “saving money” is easier said than done for most people. I understand that it is ‘easy and logical’ for some people, but I also understand it can be a difficult habit to break for others.

  • http://www.quora.com/Product-Development/What-are-good-resources-for-product-managers-conducting-user-or-customer-surveys-interviews#ans351637 Quora

    What are good resources for product managers conducting user or customer surveys/interviews?…

    I am not sure exactly what you are trying to learn so I provided some practical resources on how to effectively instrument customer feedback in various situations: How to Prepare for Customer Development Interviews The Experience is the Product. Cindy …

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    [...] Bottom Line: Customer Development is not about surveys, it’s about conversations.The guys at KISSmetrics break it down beautifully here. [...]

  • http://www.socialgenie.com Arpit

    Hey Cindy, just discovered your blog and am pleasantly surprised at the amount of useful actionable knowledge you’ve created and curated.

    A follow up question pertinent to this post: Most of these questions are great for a face to face interaction, would you say they work just as well in an online survey?

    Thanks and keep up the great work!

  • http://www.cindyalvarez.com cindyalvarez

    Nope, I wouldn’t use these in an online survey. It takes a lot more effort to write, and people are more self-conscious about seeing their thoughts in writing, so they tend to self-censor. You also totally miss the emotional component; you can’t tell whether they were scowling or grinning when they wrote an answer.

    That said, you definitely don’t have to do these interviews face-to-face — I do the majority of my customer dev over the phone. It does take a little practice to adjust to the rhythms of listening and replying, but you can get most of the same value out of phone.

  • http://www.showloveworld.com Chauncey Zalkin
  • vishal

    What’s the frequency of conducting these interviews? Do you do
    this once before every major release or continuously on a weekly basis to
    validate every new feature?

  • http://brentongieser.com/ Brenton Gieser

    This is right on…as a product person it’s easy to fall in a self validation trap…especially when it’s based on a person’s word instead of data.

    Do you think it’s important to preface the interview with basic questions that try to validate your assumptions…like the ones you bullet pointed above.  Then from there  do you get into seeing how they use the product?  We’ve just released our MVP so we’re aiming to both test our assumptions and see how our users use the product.

    Thanks Cindy…you’re work is awesome!!

  • http://www.quora.com/What-are-some-great-questions-to-ask-stakeholders-when-seeking-to-better-understand-your-target-market-while-building-a-web-product-or-set-of-features#ans909542 Quora

    What are some great questions to ask stakeholders when seeking to better understand your target market while building a web product or set of features?…

    The goal of a customer development interview is to understand the current process and the reasoning behind it. It can be accomplished with just 6 primary generic questions: * Please describe your process (people involved, location, tools used, etc) * W…

  • http://www.jonathanlyork.com/?p=144 Some valuable links to help with the customer discovery process « it depends . . .

    [...] How to think about what you should be learning (and thus the questions . . . ) [...]

  • http://jasonevanish.com/2012/01/18/how-to-structure-and-get-the-most-out-of-customer-development-interviews/ How to Structure (and get the most out of) Customer Development Interviews « The Art of Living

    [...] few others have written about how they do interviews, so definitely check out Cindy Alvarez and Sachin Aggarwal’s thoughts on the [...]

  • http://jasonevanish.com/2012/01/18/lessons-learned-in-customer-development/ Lessons Learned in Customer Development « The Art of Living

    [...] Cindy Alvarez of Yammer/KissMetrics [...]

  • http://xleanbiz.wordpress.com/2012/03/18/the-truth-about-feedback/ The truth about Feedback « eXtreme Lean Business

    [...] to say ‘no’. (…)people can’t imagine technologies that don’t exist yet.” - Cindy Alvarez, “Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning” Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:LikeBe the first to like this post. Posted in: [...]

  • http://reddysblog.wordpress.com/2012/04/21/mvp-customer-development-8/ MVP – Customer Development « reddysblog

    [...] you are interested in this topic, check out Cindy Alvarez’s posts on finding people and conducting interviews. Share this:TwitterFacebookMoreLike this:LikeBe the first to like this [...]

  • http://twitter.com/Ciara_Muddiman Ciara Muddiman

  • http://www.saintsal.com/2012/09/what-spies-can-teach-us-about-customer-development/ What spies can teach us about Customer Development – @SaintSal

    [...] Ian Collingwood and Johanna Kollmann both have practical decks on conversation, including different types of questions to add to your arsenal. Cindy Alvarez also shares some of her great questions. [...]

  • http://www.saintsal.com/2012/09/softball-anchor-and-deflection-questions/ Softball, Anchor and Deflection questions – @SaintSal

    [...] different types of questions to add to your arsenal. Cindy Alvarez also shares some of her great questions. Rob Fitzpatrick gave a great talk on Customer Development for [...]

  • http://getitdonetts.wordpress.com/2012/10/16/find-your-niche-the-easy-way/ Can’t Find Your Niche? |

    [...] Get Frisky – If you want to know your customer, you actually have to *gasp* talk to your customer. Grab your benefits and your emotional assumptions and validate them one by one.  If you’re [...]

  • http://blogvoltagecrmcom.thryz.com/laying-the-foundation-for-early-sales-process-success-in-easy-6-steps-part-16/ Using CRM to drive early stage sales process success

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  • http://luiszunzunegui.com/2013/01/11/understanding-beta/ Understanding “BETA” | The amazing free cog
  • http://twitter.com/utkarshlokesh Utkarsh Lokesh

    Good information. Thanks.

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  • http://www.facebook.com/boundlessfuture Christian LeFer

    I am developing a product that is a more dramatic problem, and it’s one that customers are in most cases only going to use once (it’s a set of government application forms to obtain government approval). So it’s not like they have any experience to relate. But what I do have is a stream of prospects accepting a free phone consultation, and I convert a lot of these. How can I use this process in this situation?

  • Jay Kan

    Great concrete example questions that avoids yes/no answers while helping you to understand your potential customers. Getting to understand your customers are quite essential. However, I think many start-ups struggle to find their potential prospects at low-cost within a reasonable time. Do you know any effective cold-email/cold-phone calling techniques that work well with trying to establish a potential meeting with your prospects?

  • http://thinkcrank.com/understand-the-user-experience-hack-design-lesson-12/ Understand The User Experience (Hack Design Lesson 12)ThinkCrank | ThinkCrank

    [...] above points were taken from the article Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning (by: Cindy Alvarez).  These points are important when creating new designs, and Ms. [...]

  • http://leancommunity.co/?p=4 Directory of Useful Resources | My Website
  • Ed

    Good question list. Thanks!

  • Mladen

    Great article!

    Friends and I have idea to create one app. We are still building concept, but I would like to test it and see can we really solve problems we addressed and is there market we are looking for. What concern us the most is that someone will steal our idea. :)

    Any suggestions how to overcome that?

  • http://blog.kissmetrics.com/26-customer-development-resources/ 26 Resources to Help You Master Customer Development Interviews

    [...] What You Should Be Learning – Don’t know what you should be getting out of these interviews? Read this article to [...]

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    [...] What You Should Be Learning – Don’t know what you should be getting out of these interviews? Read this article to [...]

  • http://oscarpena.me/26-resources-help-master-customer-development-interviews/ 26 Resources to Help You Master Customer Development Interviews – Oscar Pena

    [...] What You Should Be Learning – Don’t know what you should be getting out of these interviews? Read this article to [...]

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    [...] on via the tactics of Humble Inquiry. All the Customer Discovery Interview HowTo’s from Cindy Alvarez, Steve Blank, Eric Ries, etc are written in the context of Humble Inquiry. This is why Customer [...]

  • http://twitter.com/mikeskinner mikeskinner

    Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning http://bit.ly/c2dJf2

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/hnshah hnshah

    Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/clickryan clickryan

    RT @hnshah: Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyal …

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/chrisriedy chrisriedy

    RT @cindyalvarez #Customerdev How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. New blog post:* http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/umairukhan umairukhan

    RT @hnshah: Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/simplynursery simplynursery

    » Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be …: … or may trigger more questions from you to as… http://bit.ly/bly9iv

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/vlod vlod

    RT @hnshah: Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/graemeharre graemeharre

    RT @hnshah: Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/giffconstable giffconstable

    great post from @cindyalvarez on customer dev conversations http://bit.ly/bkneOE #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/lauraklein lauraklein

    RT @giffconstable: great post from @cindyalvarez on customer dev conversations http://bit.ly/bkneOE #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/danmartell danmartell

    RT @hnshah Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/lincolnmurphy lincolnmurphy

    Great post by @cindyalvarez “Customer Development Interviews: What You Should Be Learning” http://j.mp/cDFQqC #custdev

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/venturehacks venturehacks

    “What should I be learning from this interview?” An example customer development interview by @cindyalvarez: http://j.mp/dmySxL.

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/suwvienna suwvienna

    RT @venturehacks: “What should I be learning from this interview?” An example customer development interview by @cindyalvarez: http://j.mp/dmySxL.

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/fdebong fdebong

    RT @venturehacks: “What should I be learning from this interview?” An example customer development interview by @cindyalvarez: http://j.mp/dmySxL.

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/meatinthesky meatinthesky

    Cindy Alvarez’s sample customer development interview: http://bit.ly/cTP2Xu I will post mine for @oneforty soon.

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/brantcooper brantcooper

    RT @venturehacks: “What should I be learning from this interview?” by @cindyalvarez: http://j.mp/dmySxL. #custdev #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/rimalovski rimalovski

    Timely! How to understand your customer’s needs better than they customer can articulate them by @cindyalvarez: http://j.mp/dmySxL.

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/custdev custdev

    “People think incremental, not disruptive” An example #custdev interview by @cindyalvarez: http://bit.ly/cTP2Xu #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/leanbot leanbot

    @custdev: “People think incremental, not disruptive” An example #custdev interview by @cindyalvarez: http://bit.ly/cTP2Xu

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/gordonmattey gordonmattey

    Customer Development: What you SHOULD be learning from your interview. http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez via @hnshah

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/kevnd kevnd

    Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning (by @cindyalvarez) http://ow.ly/1bdrO #prodmgmt

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/cindyalvarez cindyalvarez

    Long pause & "deliberately mischaracterizing what ppl say so they’ll clarify, passionately" are great tactics.

    This comment was originally posted on Meat In The Sky Blog

  • http://twitter.com/asmartbear asmartbear

    RT @giffconstable: great post from @cindyalvarez on customer dev conversations http://bit.ly/bkneOE #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/PrometheusIV PrometheusIV

    RT @danmartell: RT @hnshah Customer Development How-To: What you SHOULD be learning… http://bit.ly/dpdxt2 #leanstartup /by @cindyalvarez

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/TJMcCue TJMcCue

    If you are talking to your customers, read this: Customer Development Interviews How-to by @cindyalvarez http://bit.ly/diCesW

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/smallbiztrends smallbiztrends

    RT @asmartbear @giffconstable: great post from @cindyalvarez on customer dev conversations http://bit.ly/bkneOE #leanstartup

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/TJMcCue TJMcCue

    Are you learning from your customer conversations? #CRM #em20 http://bit.ly/diCesW

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/WriteTheCompany WriteTheCompany

    RT @TJMcCue Are you learning from your customer conversations? #CRM #em20 – http://bit.ly/diCesW

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/TJMcCue TJMcCue

    This post on talking intelligently to your customers to get feedback is extremely popular. http://bit.ly/diCesW

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/Adrianaology Adrianaology

    Great customer development tips from @cindyalvarez: Customer Development Interviews How-to: What You Should Be Learning http://bit.ly/9D5h83

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

  • http://twitter.com/jmagnuss jmagnuss

    Do better cust. interviews: http://bit.ly/b5bdl1 http://bit.ly/39DDc8 http://bit.ly/cbOrzD http://bit.ly/cwpYCD @cindyalvarez, @lauraklein

    This comment was originally posted on Twitter

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